The Future of Advanced Air Mobility

Dutch company PAL-V has been developing a flying car since 2008. It tested its "proof of concept" PAL-V One for driving in 2008/2009 and for flying and driving in 2011/2012, showing the technical feasibility and certifiability "within the existing regulatory framework."

It has since developed its production facility to build the company's first product, the PAL-V Liberty.

The company has introduced a Pioneer Edition of the Liberty Sport with only 90 being available, and these will represent the first deliveries. Beyond that, the Liberty Sport will be the standard model

The company says the order book is growing and in mid-February 2020 the PAL-V started a European Road Admission program, which the company described as "a major milestone towards the start of delivery."

Meanwhile, it said the aviation certification "has reached the final stage" with a compliance demonstration. It believes flying will start in urban environments with flights over cities in 8-12 years from now.

CEO and co-founder Robert Dingemanse stated, "We will take our cars to the sky in 2021 and the PAL-V Liberty can be seen on the roads in the upcoming months. However, before we see air-taxis in the urban environment we still have to wait another ten years, because of the many challenges like regulations, infrastructure, technology, noise, safety, city turbulence, and social acceptance."

Flying the PAL-V is like flying a gyroplane – "easy and safe," said PAL-V. "If you consider that a gyroplane cannot stall and practically floats in the air, your flying experience will be relaxed and highly addictive. After approximately 30 to 40 training hours you will be ready to get your pilot license."

The company is using the syllabus (so-called Gyropedia) of the Phil Harwood, who created the Gyrocopter Experience for flight instruction. "We [will] implement this flight training system at all our flight schools worldwide," it added.

In February of 2021, Pal-V noted the EASA's Special Condition publication earlier this month gives the Liberty flying car a clear path into market. The EASA's publication outlines certification standards for gyroplanes with a maximum takeoff weight not exceeding 2,200 pounds to be approved under existing CS-27 rules for rotorcraft. Pal-V hopes that the Liberty aircraft, which applied for type certification through the EASA, will achieve approval before the end of 2022.


Our objective assessment of this program’s probable success.

FutureFlight assesses the probability of success for a new aircraft program by considering the following criteria:

  • Total investment funds available in proportion to the anticipated cost of getting an aircraft certified and in service
  • A company’s in-house capability (in terms of numbers of engineers, technical staff, and customer support teams)
  • The past experience of the company and its senior leadership in developing aircraft
  • The caliber and past experience of key program partners
  • Whether key aircraft systems have been selected and are available for use
  • Whether the preliminary design review has been completed
  • Whether the design for the full-scale prototype has been completed
  • Whether the type certification process has been formally initiated with an appropriate regulator
  • Whether the company has achieved a first flight with a full-scale prototype
  • The number of hours logged in a flight test program
  • Whether type certification has been achieved
  • The number of orders and commitment received for the aircraft
  • Whether the company has adequate facilities to begin series production of the aircraft
Our Methodology

Seems to be progressing well and is likely to come to fruition. AIN had initial discussions with PAL-V's founders at the Farnborough Airshow in 2018. This program has been around since before the current eVTOL boom took off.

Liberty Models

Liberty Sport Specifications

local Rotorcraft


  • Passenger Capacity
  • Range
    249 mi
  • Cruise Speed
    99 mph
  • Powerplant Type
    single rotor
  • Power Source
  • Endurance
  • Max Altitude
    10,000 ft
  • Takeoff Distance
    1,080 ft
  • Landing Distance
    100 ft
  • Empty Weight
    2,006 lb
  • Payload Weight


  • Length
  • Width
  • Height
  • Wingspan

The Liberty Sport features two engines (which run on unleaded mogas), self-stabilization, and a full leather interior.

Its rotor diameter is 35.26ft (10.75m).

It can carry two people and has a maximum takeoff weight of 2,006lb (910kg).

Driving range is 817 miles (1,315km) and cruise speed 99 mph (160km/h), while flying it has a range of 249 miles (400km) (departing at MTOW) at a speed of 99 mph (160km/h) including half an hour's reserve fuel, and a maximum height of 10,000ft (3,500m).

It can take off in 1,080ft (330m) with a 590ft (180m) takeoff roll, and land in 100ft (30m), says PAL-V.