The Future of Advanced Air Mobility

Samad Aerospace launched in 2017 with plans to develop a family of electrically powered, ducted fan aircraft, starting with a UAV (the UAV Starling) and also including a light eVTOL aircraft (e-Starling) and a business jet (Starling Jet). When the company was launched in 2017, the plan called for the UAV to enter service in 2019, followed by the e-Starling in 2022 and the Starling Jet in 2024.

However, in November 2019, founder and CEO Dr. Seyed Mohseni told FutureFlight that these timelines have slipped back to accommodate the need to raise a further $60 million funds and changes to the business plan. The UAV Starling project now appears to be sidelined. Instead, work has now begun on a smaller two-seat version of the e-Starling that will be called the Q-Starling (formerly known as the Q22). In early September 2020, Samad was preparing to fly a 50 percent scale model of the e-Starling, having earlier flown 10 and 20 percent scale models.

The plan now calls for a full-scale prototype of the six-seat e-Starling to make a first flight in 2023, en route to achieving type certification and first deliveries by the end of 2025. The e-Starling is intended mainly for personal and business transportation use, with range to allow for city-to-city flights.

As of September 2020, Samad had suspended work on its planned 10-seat Starling Jet and also the two-seat Home & Urban Mobility Aircraft (HUMA).  The HUMA is a fundamentally different design from the e-Starling and is intended specifically for air taxi urban air mobility applications. The design features counter-rotating rotors that tilt forward for horizontal cruise mode. The wing and the cabin can also turn 90 degrees. Samad anticipates that the purchase price for HUMA could be around $250,000.

Samad intends for all its planned models to be all-electric aircraft. However, acknowledging that current battery technology does not support the longer-range it has in mind, the company intends to bring the models into production with a hybrid-electric powerplant. This would be based around an as-yet-unspecified diesel motor. The company believes operators would be able to land at gas stations to refuel. At the same time, it is considering hydrogen fuel cells as an alternative to electric batteries.

In September 2020, Mohseni told FutureFlight that he was close to signing one or more memorandums of understanding with prospective investors as he seeks to raise up to around $80 million to complete the e-Starling and Q-Starling programs. He indicated that he intends to partner with a medium-sized aerospace manufacturer to allow them to focus on the Q-Starling and to allow his team to focus on the e-Starling. He also suggested that the company may relocate some development activities to another lower-cost country, in part in reaction to not receiving what Mohseni considers to be appropriate levels of financial support from UK authorities.

In November 2020, Samad achieved a first flight with a half-sized model of the e-Starling operating in conventional takeoff and landing mode. The company said that it expects to be ready to start vertical takeoff and landing test flights by the end of April 2021. As of mid-March 2021, the company was assembling what it says is the second airframe for this half-scale prototype.

Samad continued the development of the Starling throughout 2021. In August, Samad increased its engineering team to further progress the development of the Starling program. In September, the company announced its goal was to start deliveries in the fourth quarter of 2022. In late November, South African aerostructures and aircraft equipment manufacturer Aerosud Aviation partnered with Samad for the development of the Starling cargo.


test flight

Samad Aerospace said it expects to start vertical takeoff and landing test flights with a half-scale mode of the e-Starling aircraft during 2021. 

test flight

During November 2020, Samad Aerospace achieved a first test flight with a half-sized model of the e-Starling aircraft. This flew in conventional takeoff and landing mode.


Our objective assessment of this program’s probable success.

FutureFlight assesses the probability of success for a new aircraft program by considering the following criteria:

  • Total investment funds available in proportion to the anticipated cost of getting an aircraft certified and in service
  • A company’s in-house capability (in terms of numbers of engineers, technical staff, and customer support teams)
  • The past experience of the company and its senior leadership in developing aircraft
  • The caliber and past experience of key program partners
  • Whether key aircraft systems have been selected and are available for use
  • Whether the preliminary design review has been completed
  • Whether the design for the full-scale prototype has been completed
  • Whether the type certification process has been formally initiated with an appropriate regulator
  • Whether the company has achieved a first flight with a full-scale prototype
  • The number of hours logged in a flight test program
  • Whether type certification has been achieved
  • The number of orders and commitment received for the aircraft
  • Whether the company has adequate facilities to begin series production of the aircraft
Our Methodology

Samad Aerospace is a small UK-based startup that seems to have a worthwhile concept that it might be struggling to bring to market due to a lack of resources.

Its business plan and development timelines appear to have shifted significantly during 2019. The company's plans for powering its aircraft appear somewhat uncertain. For instance, the idea that early adopters of its diesel hybrid-electric aircraft will be able to refuel at roadside gas stations seems far-fetched and no work seems to be going into refining the plans for required ground infrastructure.

As of September 2020, it was around six months behind its earlier timeline goals for the core e-Starling and Q-Starling aircraft. It also acknowledged that it needed to raise up to around $80 million in capital, starting with an initial goal of $20 million.

The program was boosted by news of a first flight with a half-scale model of the e-Starling during November 2020, and by the end of the first quarter of 2021 appeared to be trying to step up flight test work that should support final design definition for the aircraft.

Starling Models

UAV Starling Specifications

Optionally-piloted vtol Lift + Cruise


  • Passenger Capacity
  • Range
    300 mi
  • Cruise Speed
    150 mph
  • Powerplant Type
    ducted fan
  • Power Source
  • Endurance
  • Max Altitude
  • Takeoff Distance
  • Landing Distance
  • Empty Weight
  • Payload Weight
    22 lb


  • Length
  • Width
  • Height
  • Wingspan

Samad Aerospace is developing the UAV Starling as the first of three members of its Starling Jet family of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft—the other two being the seven-seat eStarling and the 10-seat, longer-range Starling Jet. 

Key Personnel

Samad Aerospace CEO Seyed Mohseni
Seyed Mohseni

Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Founder